Amikacin

Amikacin is a semi-synthetic descendant of kanamycin. Amikacin is an antibiotic which has a brand name amikin. Aminoglycoside is used to treat bacterial infections.

Mechanism of action(MOA)

They cause the blocking mechanism where amino glycoside and cytoplasmic membrane cannot be transported. They freeze the starting of protein synthesis, when they are in the cell. After the exposure to aminoglycosides the amino acids, proteins and sensitive bacteria become permeable and leak out after cell death.

Uses of Amikacin

Hospital acquired infections

It is also used for treating fever and neutropenia when combined with beta lactam antibiotic.

For treating respiratory diseases the liposomal amikacin for inhalation purposes is in clinical trials for pseudomonas, cystic fibrosis, and bronchiectasis.

Some multi drug resistant bacteria like enterobacter, acinobacter, providencia stuartii and pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Dosage and Administration

Dosage should be calculated according to the body weight and renal function level.

For an adult average dose with normal renal levels is CLcr >70 ml/min is amikacin 7.5-1.5 mg/kg/day.

As the half life of amikacin is very short it is given in every 8 hour. The doses are equally divided and injected i.m. However do consult your doctor and ask for a single dose if possible.

Side-Effects

Common side-effects are:

  1. Blurred vision
  2. Black tarry stools
  3. Bluish skin
  4. Confusion
  5. Cough
  6. Agitation
  7. Bloody urine
  8. Chills
  9. Fever
  10. Coma
  11. Tingling feeling
  12. Oligouria
  13. Depression
  14. Dizziness
  15. Difficulty in moving
  16. Difficulty in breathing
  17. Fullness in ear
  18. Dry mouth
  19. Burning sensation
  20. Decreased urine output .
  21. Headache
  22. Hearing loss
  23. Muscle pain
  24. Stiffness
  25. Painful urination
  26. Pain in joints
  27. Loss of balance
  28. Lethargy
  29. Seizures
  30. Sore throat
  31. Sweating
  32. Swelling in glands
  33. Shortness of breath
  34. Tremors
  35. Bruising

Precaution and warning

Give your full personal and family history to the doctor. If you have any allergy to any medication please let your doctor know. This medication may contain inactive ingredients which may cause some harmful effects. If you have any history of hearing, cystic disease or myasthenia gravis, then you should not use this medication before consulting your doctor. While using amikacin, avoid use of any vaccines or immunization as it does not work with vaccines.

Pregnancy and Breast-Feeding

During pregnancy or planning to get pregnant the patient should consult the doctor before using this medication. It has been relatively safe considering other drugs that may harm the fetus. Therefore, women can use it in pregnancy.

While during nursing it does get secrete into milk in small doses. Please get approval of your doctor before using it.

Drug Interaction

Some drugs like amphotericin B, tobramycin, cisplastin, cephalosporins and ibuprofen. These drugs should never be combined or taken while taking Amikacin. As some drugs may change the course of medications and how they work.

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